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关于炼油厂污油泥处理的现状分析及技术推荐 (Present situation analysis and technical recommendation of refinery sludge treatment)

关于炼油厂污油泥处理的现状分析及技术推荐 (Present situation analysis and technical recommendation of refinery sludge treatment)

  • 分类:新闻资讯
  • 作者:
  • 来源:
  • 发布时间:2019-11-13
  • 访问量:73

【概要描述】

关于炼油厂污油泥处理的现状分析及技术推荐 (Present situation analysis and technical recommendation of refinery sludge treatment)

【概要描述】

  • 分类:新闻资讯
  • 作者:
  • 来源:
  • 发布时间:2019-11-13
  • 访问量:73
详情

据国家发改委统计资料显示,我国目前有大小200多家石油炼化企业,每家企业都有不同程度的污油泥产生。随着国家新的环保法有力推行,各企业不可避免的面临着污油泥处理问题,如果在处理污油泥工艺技术上能够满足油净、水清、泥干要求,污油泥就会得到有效的解决。下面就污油泥处理技术的细节和解决方法以及原理性的问题加以分析和说明:

According to the statistics of the National Development and Reform Commission, there are more than 200 oil refining and chemical enterprises in China, and each enterprise has different degrees of sludge. With the implementation of the new national environmental protection law, enterprises are inevitably faced with the problem of sludge treatment. If the process technology of sludge treatment can meet the requirements of clean oil, clean water and dry mud, the sludge will be effectively solved. The following is an analysis and explanation of the details and solutions of the sludge treatment technology as well as the problems of the principle:

 

一、炼油厂污油泥的种类,俗称炼化三泥 (The type of oil refinery sludge, commonly known as refining three mud):

 含泥含水污油 Contains mud, water, dirty oil

 含油浮渣 Oily scum

 生化污泥 The biochemical sludge

 

二、炼化三泥分项处理技术解析 Analysis of item treatment technology of three mud in refining and chemical industry

(一)、含泥含水污油:在炼化三泥中这种污油泥含油最多,大约在15~60%之间,其数量随着炼化原油数量增多而增多,所以这部分原油含量不可以忽视,然而要想将这部分原油分离出来并且还要符合炼化油品指标要求,就十分困难了。其原因是在整个处理过程中不能加入任何化学药剂,应该使用纯物理方法分离。

Sludge and water-containing dirty oil: in the three sludged oil of refining and chemical industry, this kind of dirty oil sludged oil contains the most oil, about 15-60%. Its amount increases with the increase of the amount of refined crude oil, so the content of this part of crude oil can not be ignored. However, it is very difficult to separate this part of crude oil and meet the requirements of refined oil product indicators. The reason for this is that no chemicals can be added during the entire treatment process and should be separated by pure physical methods.

 

 

1、不使用化学药剂的理由 Reasons not to use chemicals

加入的化学药剂的品类往往是表面活性剂、清洗剂、破乳剂、破胶剂、助溶剂、清蜡剂等等化学药剂。这些药剂在选型上还有很大的不确定性,面广而复杂品类繁多。一旦混入高腐蚀性、高氧化性、高乳化性等药剂时,会使储油罐、输油管线、炼油塔、传感器等产生腐蚀、干扰以及储罐中的原油产生乳化现象,致使炼化系统在短时间内出现不稳定现象,也会在腐蚀现象发生过程中而不被及时发现,这种没有风险评估而使用的化学药剂,它的危害性是不可估量的,随意使用将有可能造成无法挽回的严重的经济损失和其它的损失。因此不能贸然使用化学药剂,采取物理方法是必要的选择,可以确保万无一失。

The categories of chemical agents added are often surfactants, cleaning agents, demulsifiers, glue breakers, co-solvents, paraffin removers and other chemical agents. There is still great uncertainty in the selection of these agents, with a wide range and a wide range of complex categories. Once with high corrosion resistance, high oxidizing reagents, high emulsification etc, can make the oil tank, oil pipelines, oil refining tower, corrosion, interference such as sensor, and the crude oil in storage tank that produce emulsifying phenomenon, the refining system in a short period of time appear unstable phenomenon, also in the process of the corrosion phenomena occur without being found in time, this has no risk assessment and use of chemicals, its harmfulness is immeasurable, use is likely to cause irreparable economic loss and other losses. Therefore, we cannot use chemical agents rashly. Physical methods are necessary to ensure that nothing goes wrong.

 

 

2、使用物理方法的工艺技术流程图 Process flow charts using physical methods

 

3、主体工艺描述 Main Process Description

(1)进料:利用螺杆泵把物料从污油罐(池)输送至污泥调质清洗装置。

        Feeding: the screw pump is used to transport the material from the dirty oil tank (tank) to the sludge conditioning and cleaning device.

(2)清洗:物料通过机械分散等作用下实现料液密度降低和破坏聚合物;

        Cleaning: material through mechanical dispersion and other actions to achieve material liquid density reduction and destruction of polymer;

(3)油水分离:通过高速卧螺离心机分离方法,实现油和泥、水的分离,分离后的原油外输。

        Separation of oil and water: the separation of oil, mud and water can be realized by means of high-speed decanter centrifuge, and the crude oil after                                separation can be exported.

(4)固液分离:污水首先通过固液分离卧螺机完成固体与液体分离,脱水后的泥饼就地深度处理或外运,清水回掺或进入水处理厂深度处理。

        Solid liquid separation: sewage is firstly separated from liquid by solid liquid separation horizontal screw machine. After dehydration, mud cake is deeply                           treated or transported locally, and clear water is mixed back or entered into the water treatment plant for deep treatment.

 

 

4、处理后的各项可控指标 Controllable indicators after treatment

(1)油中含水率 Water content in oil:0.5~1%

(2)油中含灰分 Oil contains ash:0~0.7%

(3)水中悬浮物 Suspended substance in water:<SS: 1000mg/l(如果做到10 mg/l需要增加设备=If 10 mg/ L is achieved, additional equipment is needed)

(4)水中含油率 Oil content in water:  <1000ppm(如果做到10 mg/l需要增加设备=If 10 mg/ L is achieved, additional equipment is needed)

(5)泥中含水率 Moisture content in mud :  40~80%

(6)泥中含油:The mud oil   2~20%

 

5、泥中含油2~20%的深度减量化处理 Depth reduction treatment of 2~20% oil in mud

这种污油泥我们推荐两种处理模式,一种就是在物理方法处理过程中的第一步脱油阶段脱油后,剩下的泥水混合物中加入化学药剂,这时候已经有大约95%以上的原油被回收,剩余的不足5%的原油还留在泥中,使用化学药剂主要的目的是将泥中的含油量降低到2%或10%以下有利于后续干化或热脱附处理,分离出来的原油不进入炼化系统而是另行处理,比如进入焦化厂等。

The sewage sludge we recommend two kinds of processing mode, one is in the physical method is the first step in the process to take off the oil phase after deoiling, the remaining mud mixture adding chemical agents, this time is about more than 95% of the crude oil is recycling, the remaining less than 5% of the crude oil is left in the mud, the main purpose is to use chemicals in the mud oil content reduced to 2% or below 10% for the subsequent drying or hot stripping process, the separated but not into the refining of crude oil system further processing, such as entering the coking plant.

 

另一种处理办法就是利用微生物降解技术。这一技术已经得到国际上公认的最为绿色的处理技术,目前该技术已经趋于成熟并有多处成功案例,其优点是可以将污泥减量30%之多,处理成本也要比使用药剂低3~10倍。

Another approach is to use microbial degradation techniques. This technology has been internationally recognized as the greenest treatment technology, the technology has become mature and has a number of successful cases, its advantage is that it can reduce the amount of sludge by as much as 30%, the treatment cost is also 3~10 times lower than the use of agents.

 

(二)含油浮渣 Oily scum

含油浮渣在所有炼油厂都表现为一种状态,就是脱水极其困难。不管是国产设备还是国际名牌设备均不能达到理想的脱水效果,只能脱出部分污泥而水含固率还是较高,目测为黑色污水。其主要原因是絮凝后浮渣上浮而不像普通污水那样自然下沉,普通卧螺离心机是分离下沉物料的机械,有些厂家向物料中加入大量的沉降剂,这样会起到一定效果,但是也会使减量化变成增量化与目的相悖不可取。

Oil scum in all oil refineries is a state of being extremely difficult to dehydrate. Whether it is domestic equipment or international famous brand equipment can not achieve the ideal dewatering effect, can only remove part of the sludge and water solid rate is still high, visual for black sewage. The main reason is that after flocculation, scum floats up and does not naturally sink like ordinary sewage. Ordinary decanter centrifuge is a machine for separating sinking materials. Some manufacturers add a large amount of settling agent to the materials, which will have a certain effect, but it will also make the reduction become the increase of quantification and contrary to the purpose.

 

 

我们的工艺技术和设备是:首先加入两种絮凝剂,然后使用我们公司自主研发的特种浮渣卧螺离心机一次性将水脱出去,水再进行气浮去除少量的悬浮物。泥饼直接外输或加入微生物降解处理,这个过程不加入任何助沉剂,浮渣只有减量而没有增量。

Our process technology and equipment are: first add two kinds of flocculants, and then use the special scum decanter centrifuge independently developed by our company to remove the water at one time, and then the water is carried out by air flotation to remove a small amount of suspended matter. Mud cake is directly exported or added to microbial degradation treatment, this process does not add any sedimentation aid, dross only reduced but not increased.

 

(三)生化污泥 The biochemical sludge

生化污泥主要是脱水干化问题,由于生化污泥含有大量微生物所以脱水具有一定的困难,使用挤压式卧螺离心机含水率会有一定程度上减少,但是要想达到干化的目的还需要采取有效的技术。我方推荐微生物降解技术,可以减量30~40%同时也可以去除微量油分。其工艺图如下:

Biochemical sludge is mainly the problem of dehydration and drying. Because biochemical sludge contains a large number of microorganisms, dehydration is difficult to a certain extent. The moisture content of extruded horizontal screw centrifuge will be reduced to a certain extent, but effective technology is needed to achieve the purpose of drying. We recommend microbial degradation, which can reduce the amount of oil by 30~40% and also remove trace oil. The process diagram is as follows:

以上为我们在长期污油泥处理工作中的一点拙见,希望能为同行们提供一些启发,同时也期望与有以上需求者展开合作,共同解决面临的困难,把技术更完善,把工作做得更好。望提出宝贵意见,谢谢!

The above is our humble opinion in the long-term sludge treatment work, I hope to provide some inspiration for the peers, but also hope to cooperate with the above demand, jointly solve the difficulties faced, improve the technology, do better work. Your valuable advice is highly appreciated. Thank you!

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